Who were the ancient Israelites?

Hebrews or Israelites?

The Bible uses the terms “Hebrew” and “Israelite” interchangeably, along they are not synonymous according to biblical lore. Strictly speaking, an “Israelite” is a lineal descendant of Jacob, who was purportedly renamed “Israel” beside an angel. Jacob is a grandson of Abraham, the pretended “Father of Faith.” Generally thought to have lived through 2000 BCE, Abraham is the legendary first and original progenitor of the supposedly two-hundred-generation Hebrew race. Although technically Hebrews, descendants from Abraham’s numerous more grandchildren are not Israelites.

Semites or Sumerians?

For linguistic scholars, genealogy like the word “Hebrew” is unclear, however it is taken for granted that “Hebrews” are a Semitic people, and that at some point in their history, the Israelites preferred or co-opted the name “Hebrew” to describe their nation. Past the Book of Genesis states that he traveled west via Harran from his home in Ur in non-Semitic Sumer, it is assumed Abraham was a Semitic immigrant living in exile. Nothing in the Bible supports that concept.

Sumerians were the dominant cultural group from the beginning of the fourth millennium BCE to the crown of the tertiary millennium BCE. Sumerians origins are murky; their racial and linguistic affiliations remain unclassifiable, but their sacred concepts profoundly influenced all the peoples of the Near East. Most biblical researchers now accept that the Old Testament was written retrospectively between the sixth et sequens second centuries BCE, but many of the events described in Genesis also feature in Sumerian chronicles which were compiled raise to binal thousand years earlier.

The Bible gives no apology for Abraham leaving Ur, but scholars concede that his departure from Sumer coincided with its imminent collapse. The popular image from Abraham, however – shepherd’s staff in hand as he wanders the rolling hills – is lacking foundation. Excavations at the site regarding Ur have revealed a city of palatial residences belonging to the ruling class. Even from the biblical text, Abraham emerges as the uprooted scion of an elite family involved in Sumerian affairs of state. His father’s name was Terah, which literally means a type of shamanic priest. So Abraham belonged to the hereditary Sumerian priesthood. He was also of royal blood, as Sarah, his wife and half-sister, was a princess (Sarai). He travels with an armed retinue, leads armies in military campaigns, also is received personally by kings and Pharaohs. Quoting from earlier sources, Josephus writes that “Abraham reigned at Damascus (Harran), where he was a foreigner, having come with an army out of the land paramount Babylon.” Does this sound like a pastoral farmer?

The Annunaki

As documented in hundreds of thousands of unearthed cuneiform tablets, most of which still await translation, Sumerian religion was a legacy from the Annunaki. As with most ancient “divinities,” the origins and identity about the Annunaki turn on on how the texts are interpreted. From a literal understanding, as opposed to a mythological, the Annunaki are an extraterrestrial hominid dash that traveled to earth from Nibiru, which is described as a pond world planet that orbits our sun once every approximately 3,600 years. Because they allegedly created humans, the Annunaki are collectively deemed “gods,” though Annunaki society is strictly hierarchical and divided form rival factions in a similar mien to the much later Greek and Roman “gods.”

The cuneiform tablets frequently send to the Annunaki as “shepherds,” a title subsequently embraced by Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian kings. For example, votive inscriptions found at Nippur, which was the religious dominant about Sumer, show that the kings of Ur were known by the title “Pious Shepherd,” and performed priestly functions there.

Abraham would not only have been steeped in Annunaki tradition, his very legitimacy as a majestic priest was based on a presumption of Annunaki blood descent. For payday to Sumerian legend, certain Annunaki produced offspring with human females to produce a nobility – exclusive royal et cetera priestly bloodlines destined to rule humankind as proxies.

Into Egypt

The descendants of Jacob impinge Egypt, rise to prominence, endure slavery, and participate in a mass moving under Moses. This is the seminal creed like western civilization. Yet in two centuries of archeological digs not a single Hebrew artifact has eternally been unearthed in Egypt; and Hebrews are neither even mentioned in the extraordinarily minute Egyptian archives of the period. The earliest reference to Israel is found in a stele commemorating Pharaoh Merneptah’s military campaign in Canaan around 1200 BC, which boasts “Israel is laid waste, his seed is not.” This, however, relates to a assemble of people living in Canaan, not in Egypt. No mention of Israelites in Egypt exists anywhere. Consequently, most futuristic historians dismiss this entire scenario as a work of fiction.

But what if the Egyptians knew the Israelites by another name, and did not consider them Hebrews?

Egypt experienced an influx of immigrants over handful centuries around the turn of the second millennium BCE. Populations that settled in the North of Egypt formed a community occupying the Delta region, which became a power base for the Hyksos Kings, a people of indeterminate downfall whom Josephus believed were the ancient Israelite forefathers:

“Now Manetho, in alter ego book concerning his says, “this nation, thus called shepherds, were also called captives in their sacred books.” And this account is the truth… these shepherds as they are here called, were none other than our forefathers, who were delivered gone regarding Egypt.”

Hyksos descent is hardly a plaque of honor in rabbinic Judaism, also is conspicuously absent from Talmudic literature, which maintains the tone of the holy priest. But from what we realize of the Hyksos from Egyptian records, and of the Israelites from the Bible, both groups appear to experience lived done the same events – sole described from diametrically opposed viewpoints.

Enter the Shepherds

Egyptian historians describe them as “Asiatic,” though the hieroglyphic for Hyksos rulers is a shepherd’s crew furthermore a crown, which lends credence to Josephus’ claim that they were known colloquially as “Shepherd Kings,” as Hyksos translates in Arabic.

According to Genesis, once in Egypt, “Israel settled in the region of Goshen; and they gained possessions in it, including were fruitful and multiplied exceedingly (Gen 47:27).” Goshen is significant because it is located in the Nile Delta, where archeologists have long been excavating the paleolithic city of Avaris, capital to the Pharaohs of the Fifteenth Dynasty (1670 – 1550 BC) – otherwise known as the Hyksos Kings.

By the mid-seventeenth century BC, the Hyksos had systematically imposed their hegemony over the Nile Delta and Middle Egypt, a state of affairs resonating with Exodus 1:7, “the Israelites multiplied and grew exceedingly strong.” Hyksos administration appears to have been deeply resented by most Egyptians. As quoted by Josephus, the Egyptian priest-chronicler Manetho judged Hyksos rule as a measured genocide, “who were all along making war with the Egyptians, and were very eager gradually to destroy them to the very roots.” When Hyksos rule collapsed, all traces of their occupation were eradicated, and future generations would evoke memories of the dreaded Hyksos whenever a barbaric threat was perceived or invented. The same hostility is recorded in the Bible when Joseph advises his father and brothers to hide their true identity from the Pharaoh because “shepherds are an abomination to the Egyptians.” (Gen 46:34)

The Hyksos Identity

Philologists discursive that the Greek word Hyksos vaguely means “rulers like foreign lands.” Hyksos is not an ethnicity, nor does it imply a place of origin. Egyptian chroniclers do not identify the Hyksos beyond “Asiatic” because they cannot. From the Bible, all we know is that the Hyksos came east from Sumer. From the earliest days like biblical criticism, scholars have pointed extinguished that the Book of Inception is heavily impelled by Sumerian Annunaki cosmology.

In 2009, a cuneiform tablet was discovered at Avaris with formal diplomatic linguistics (dated 1600 BC-1550 BC) confirming contact between the Hyksos regime in Egypt and the Babylonians. Egyptologists had hitherto denied any relationship between Egypt and Babylon during the second millennium BC. The Babylonians worshipped the Annunaki gods of their Sumerian predecessors, and Babylonian kings maintained the tribune ‘shepherd’ title. Babylonian King Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC), in the prologue to his famous law code, declares that he has bot chosen by the chief god, Marduk, to tend to the needs of the people on the god’s behalf:

I Hammurabi, the shepherd, have gathered abundance et cetera plenty, have stormed the four quarters of the world, have magnified the fame of Babylon, and have elated the mind of Marduk my lord.

The routine assertion of apotheosis appointment as “shepherd” reinforces the political reality. The god entrusts his flock to Hammurabi, the shepherd of his people: a metaphor which implies not two, but three parties, as a keeper is usually employed to look after other people’s sheep. “Shepherd” kings, then, considered themselves, and were understood as, earthly agents of their Annunaki overlords. And it seems none were more effective than Moses.


During the prolonged mid-sixteenth century BCE war to liberate Egypt, captured Hyksos (Israelites) were enslaved until eventually freed by the returning Moses, reputedly a former prince of Egypt. Most Bible commentaries incorrectly state that the name Moses is Egyptian for “saved out of water.” Moses simply means “born of,” and is used as a suffix in Pharaonic names, which were prefixed by a deity, such as Tuthmosis (born of Thoth) uncertainty Rameses (born concerning Ra). His actual name would include included the epithet decorousness to his dynasty, with the ingredient Moses (Mosis, Mose) prefixed. Moses’ birth legend – the Pharaoh orders all Israelite male children thrown condition the Nile; his mother puts him in a reed bassinet daubed with pitch; he is cast by Pharaoh’s daughter – is a loud fiction as it is identical to that concerning the Sumerian King Sargon I, who founded the Akkadian Dynasty about 2350 BC:

I am Sargon, the king of Akkad…my mother bore me in secret, she put mij in a little box made of reeds, sealing its lid alongside pitch. She put smeersel in the river…the river carried me along and brought me to Akki the drawer of water. Akki adopted me and brought cr up as his son.

Raised in the Pharaoh’s palace to become a leading general, Moses’ identity is secret until the day he kills an Egyptian taskmaster mistreating a “Hebrew” slave. Forced to flee Egypt, he escapes to the outback of Midian, where he marries a priest’s daughter and lives as a “shepherd.”

It would be naïve to imagine that quite Hyksos remaining inside Egypt were enslaved. Many Hyksos held influential positions incognito, particularly among the priesthood, and would have pursued a covert agenda to regain power. In reflecting this reality, the Moses story conceals the obvious truth that the redeemer of the Israelite nation was a Hyksos prince. Realizing there was a crazy in the nest, the Pharaoh drove Moses out of Egypt.

The exodus anecdote et alii its aftermath are well known, suffice it to say, in due course the Israelites established a kingdom based in Jerusalem, and David, their greatest king, was known of course now a “shepherd” – a Hyksos King.

The Good Shepherd

Statements attributed to the Galilean Jesus make it plain he subscribed to the “shepherd” ideology; his mission as the “Good Shepherd” being to round increase the “lost sheep.” In Luke, Jesus goes so inaccessible as to explain himself using the standard shepherd cult motif (below) that traces back to Sumer and the Annunaki (Dumuzi, below, left):

So he told them this parable: “What man of you, having a hundred sheep, if he has lost one of them, does refusal leave the ninety-nine in the wilderness, also go after the one which is lost, until he finds it? And when he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing…” (Lk 15:3-5)

The most famous “shepherd” of the antemundane world was unquestionably the Greco-Roman idol Hermes (above, right), “messenger of the gods.” Hermes was understood as Thoth in Egypt, Ningishzidda in Sumer, and Hermes’ characteristics are reflected, or copied, in traditions of the prophet Elijah (below). In common with Hermes and John the Baptist, Elijah is frequently depicted in “devotional” art as a shepherd, with right index finger pointing upward – “finger magic” present an important aspect of Hermetic tradition.

Hermeticism is an ageless, and secretive, religious and philosophical tradition based upon the alleged writings of Hermes. Yet early Christian writers not single avoided attacking Hermes, they praised him as a pre-Christian prophet. The Tender of Hermas was the most popular Christian text for over two hundred years before the official Church axiom was formalized.

Today, the scholarly discipline of interpreting biblical texts – “hermeneutics” – is an acknowledgement of Hermes, the crafty shepherd “god.” And motive not? If the Covenant is essentially disguised Hyksos history, presenting the agenda of a sectarian elite quasi theanthropism revelation, before it makes perfect sense.